Scroll down for language resources

Language is crucial to a student's literacy development, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. As children enter school, they bring diverse levels of language acquisition to the learning process. This page is divided into the following sections:
  1. Chatham County Schools process for addressing the needs of children with suspected language difficulties
  2. Communication Difficulties
  3. English as a Second Language

Chatham County Schools procedures for addressing the needs of children with suspected language difficulties

Outline of RTI process for language referrals

Classroom Performance Checklist

How communication difficulties may present in the classroom

Interventions for Language

Communication Difficulties

To learn more about communication difficulties, review the following PowerPoints:

Communication Difficulties

Listening Comprehension

Oral Expression

Pragmatics/Social Language Skills


Progress Monitoring

Considerations in Determining Primary Disability

The following support documents can assist with decision-making:

Norms for Oral Expression & Listening Comprehension

Intervention Recommendations from Chatham County's Speech/Language Teachers


Receptive Language Accommodations (These should be used in conjunction with the interventions)

Receptive Language Interventions

Phonological Processing - Receiving, distinguishing, and manipulating the sounds in words

Morphological Sense - Interpreting parts of words that convey some meaning

Semantic Understanding - Knowing the meanings of words

Sentence Comprehension - Understanding sentences and sentence structures

Discourse Processing - Interpreting language beyond the boundaries of a sentence


Expressive Language Accommodations - These should be used in conjunction with the interventions

Expressive Language Interventions

Semantic Use - Properly utilizing word meanings and Word Retrieval - Finding the right words quickly and accurately

Sentence Formulation - Expressing thoughts in complete sentences when speaking and writing

Discourse Production - Communicating information in a cohesive chain of sentences and Verbal Elaboration - Extending and developing ideas through language production

Mnemonic Devices - These can be used in conjunction with the some of the interventions

Some resources (not a limited list) of things that you can use to provide instructional interventions include:

School webpage
Provides a list of interventions for students who struggle with language comprehension and expression.
Cityview Performing Arts magnet
School webpage
Provides a list of interventions for students who struggle with language, articulation/phonology, phonological awareness, fluency (stuttering), and voice
Speech-Language Program
Greenville County Schools

English as a Second Language

Some variables to determine how long it may take an ELL to achieve CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) from Myths and Realities, 2nd Edition, Katherine Davies Samway & Denise McKeon:
  1. Previous exposure to content in the first language
  2. Level of literacy in the first language
  3. Age of the student at time of initial exposure to English
  4. Type of ESL instruction (delivery method and quality)
  5. Opportunity to continue education in the native language (bilingual ed.)
  6. Intermittent schooling (migrant workers, frequent moving from school to school)
  7. Relationship between culture and schooling
  • "Caste-like" or indigenous minorities (Mexican-Americans, Native Americans, and Puerto Ricans) are minorities that have become incorporated into a societ.
  • These minority groups then to believe, "they cannot advance into the mainstream of society through individual efforts in school..."
  • "Members of the minority community who try to behave like members of the majority community may be ostracized from their peers."

Using CBM to Progress Monitor English Language Learners
(A webinar provided for National Center on Student Progress Monitoring)

RTI for English Language Learners: Appropriate Screening, Progress Monitoring, and Instructional Planning.
A webinar provided for National Center on Response to Intervention